There are 3 types of calendar in the world:
1.-The Lunar calendar, based on a rotation of the Moon around the Earth. It is known as the Hebrew Calendar and it takes about 29.5 days of rotation between 2 new moons. This calendar also is used by Islam.
2. The Solar calendar, based on an alrrededor of the Sun Earth’s rotation. That we know as Gregorian and it takes 365 and 5 hours approximately to its complete rotation, formed by 12 months almost standard of 28, 30 and 31 days.
3.-the Lunisolar calendar, which integrates both previous cycles: the Moon and the Sun. Used by the Assyrians and Babylonians, and today used for the Hebrew calendar.
WHAT DOES ELOHIM SHEVAOT SAYS ABOUT THE CALENDAR?
Genesis 1:14 “then said Elohim: has lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night;” and serve as signs for the seasons, days and years“
Exodus 12:2 “this month (Abib: Exo 13:4) will be the beginning of months;” for you it will be the first in the months of the year”.
Psalm 104:19 “He made the moon to measure the seasons“
The Israelites used the Lunar calendar until his exile in Babylon (586 BC) and after his exile began using the Lunisolar calendar, which is the official calendar of the State of Israel.
WHY ISRAEL ADOPTED THE LUNISOLAR CALENDAR?
The Lunisolar calendar derived as discussed of the Assyrians and Babylonians. If we multiply 29.5 days of the Moon alrrededor of land for 12 months a year will have 354 days a year. Between this number and the number of days in the Sun (365-5 hours) alrrededor Earth rotation, there is a difference of 10 days and 21 hours. To counteract there should be a month every 2 or three years be intercropped.
In the fourth century of our era of Hillel II, of the Jewish Sanhedrin he established the use of Unisolar calendar based on calculations made in 433 BC the Athenian astronomer Meton. Meton development a system much more precise based on a 19 year cycle, in which a month was added a seven times during the period: years 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, y19vo 17. Being ultimately difference between the Solar calendar and the Moon only 6 minutes and 35 seconds per year.
THERE ARE 2 NEW YEARS IN THE BIBLICAL HEBREW CALENDAR
1.THE RELIGIOUS YEAR
Exodus 12:2 “this month (Abib: Exo 13:4) you will be the beginning of months;” for you it will be the first in the months of the year”.
This beginning of year is known as the beginning of the new ecclesiastical year. This year it was determined by the beginning of the month of Abib (Nisan according to Babylonian calendar) and determined the beginning of biblical holidays, Passover on Nisan 15.
Leviticus 23:4-6 “these are parties identified by YHWH, Holy convocations, which ye feasts on the dates indicated for them: in the month first, day fourteen of the month, in the evening, is the Easter of YHWH.” The fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of bread without yeast for YHWH; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread“.
a. 14 Nisan (Abib) is Pesach (Passover). This is the first and most important celebration of the year. One of the 3 parties of pilgrimage to Israel, calls Shalosh festivals.
b Unleavened, 7 days after the Passover. The first and the last day are Shabbat and you should refrain from work.
Numbers 28:16 – 18, 25 “month first, day fourteen of the month, will be the Passover (Pesach) YHWH. And the fifteenth day of this month there will be party; for seven days you will eat unleavened bread. The first day there will be a Holy convocation; You shall not servile work. … And on the seventh day ye shall have a Holy convocation; You shall not servile work“.
c Shavuot (Pentecost). In the month of Sivan (month 3) 50 days after Passover feast, beginning Saturday after the Unleavened breads. It is connected with the first fruits of the harvest (wheat).
Exodus 23:16 “also keep the feast of the harvest of the first fruits of your labors, of what you sow in the field; and the feast of the harvest at the end of the year when pick up from the field the fruit of your work.
d Fast remembering the destruction of Jerusalem (party not Bible-tradition). Performed 17 of Tammuz (4th month).
e Fats remembering the destruction of the 2 temples (party not Bible-tradition). Made 9 of 9 AV (5th month)
2.THE CIVIL YEAR
f Rosh Hashanah Civil 1 new year in Tishri (7th month)
Levitucos 23:23-5 “again YHWH spoke to Moses, saying: speak to the children of Israel, saying:”in the seventh month, the first day of the month, ye shall have Sabbath, a memorial to the sound of trumpets, a Holy convocation. ” Not ye shall do no servile work, but you presentaréis an offering on YHWH.”
Based on the phrase “beginning of year” of Ezekiel 40:1 “in the year twenty-five of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month, fourteen years after having taken the city, that same day came upon me the hand of YHWH, and led me there.“
Josefus in first century stated: “Moses put Nisan… “as the beginning of the festivals… the beginning of the year for all the praise regarding religious, but sale and purchase and other normal things of life preserved the old order (tishri 1)”
g Yom Kippur (day of repentance), held the 10th of Tishri (7th month)
Leviticus 23:27-32 ” “On the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה. “And you do no work on that same day, for it is the Day of Atonement, to make atonement for you before יהוה your Elohim. “For any being who is not afflicted on that same day, he shall be cut off from his people. “And any being who does any work on that same day, that being I shall destroy from the midst of his people. “You do no work – a law forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.”
h Sukkot – Feast of Tabernacles. Held on 14 to 16 of Tishri. Marks the end of the harvest: grain, olives and fruits.
i Hanukkah – Festival of dedication. (Biblical because Yeshua the welcome) Held the 25th day of Kislev. Memory of purification and dedication of the temple. Also referred to as the Festival of lights. This Festival was celebrated in the time of Yeshua.
John 10:22 “In those days was held at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication“.
j Holiday of Purim (non-Levitical). Held on 14 and 15 Adar (12th month). Based on the story of Esther.
k Sabbath – celebrated every Shabbat for eternity.
Exodus 20:8-10 “Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart. Six days you labour, and shall do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath1 of יהוה your Elohim. You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. Footnote: 1There are other Sabbaths, but this is the weekly Sabbath“.
MONTHS OF THE YEAR TORAH
Ro’eh Yosef Ben Marques ©2016